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1 US2020242789A1
ULTRAFAST, ROBUST AND EFFICIENT DEPTH ESTIMATION FOR STRUCTURED-LIGHT BASED 3D CAMERA SYSTEM
Publication/Patent Number: US2020242789A1 Publication Date: 2020-07-30 Application Number: 16/851,093 Filing Date: 2020-04-16 Inventor: Shi, Lilong   Han, Seunghoon   Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.   IPC: G06T7/521 Abstract: A system and a method are disclosed for a structured-light system to estimate depth in an image. An image is received in which the image is of a scene onto which a reference light pattern has been projected. The projection of the reference light pattern includes a predetermined number of particular sub-patterns. A patch of the received image and a sub-pattern of the reference light pattern are matched based on either a hardcode template matching technique or a probability that the patch corresponds to the sub-pattern. If a lookup table is used, the table may be a probability matrix, may contain precomputed correlations scores or may contain precomputed class IDs. An estimate of depth of the patch is determined based on a disparity between the patch and the sub-pattern. A system and a method are disclosed for a structured-light system to estimate depth in an image. An image is received in which the image is of a scene onto which a reference light pattern has been projected. The projection of the reference light pattern includes a predetermined ...More Less
2 US2020225353A1
INCREASE DEPTH RESOLUTION AND DEPTH ACCURACY IN TOF SENSORS BY AVOIDING HISTOGRAMMIZATION
Publication/Patent Number: US2020225353A1 Publication Date: 2020-07-16 Application Number: 16/830,254 Filing Date: 2020-03-25 Inventor: Shi, Lilong   Wang, Yibing Michelle   Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.   IPC: G01S17/42 Abstract: A method is disclosed to determine a traveling time for a plurality of received light pulses that reflected and returned from an object. Each returned light pulse is associated with a timestamp indicating a time between a transmission time of a corresponding light pulse and a time of arrival of the returned light pulse. For each timestamp, a number C is determined of time stamps that are subsequent to the timestamp and within a predetermined time window after the timestamp. A maximum number C is determined, and an index i is determined for the maximum number C. A traveling time is determined for the plurality of light pulses as an average of the timestamp having a same index as the maximum number C and timestamps that are within the predetermined time window after the timestamp having the same index as the maximum number C. A method is disclosed to determine a traveling time for a plurality of received light pulses that reflected and returned from an object. Each returned light pulse is associated with a timestamp indicating a time between a transmission time of a corresponding light pulse and a ...More Less
3 US10670722B2
Increase depth resolution and depth accuracy in ToF sensors by avoiding histogrammization
Publication/Patent Number: US10670722B2 Publication Date: 2020-06-02 Application Number: 15/807,334 Filing Date: 2017-11-08 Inventor: Shi, Lilong   Wang, Yibing Michelle   Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.   IPC: G01S17/42 Abstract: A method is disclosed to determine a traveling time for a plurality of received light pulses that reflected and returned from an object. Each returned light pulse is associated with a timestamp indicating a time between a transmission time of a corresponding light pulse and a time of arrival of the returned light pulse. For each timestamp, a number C is determined of time stamps that are subsequent to the timestamp and within a predetermined time window after the timestamp. A maximum number C is determined, and an index i is determined for the maximum number C. A traveling time is determined for the plurality of light pulses as an average of the timestamp having a same index as the maximum number C and timestamps that are within the predetermined time window after the timestamp having the same index as the maximum number C. A method is disclosed to determine a traveling time for a plurality of received light pulses that reflected and returned from an object. Each returned light pulse is associated with a timestamp indicating a time between a transmission time of a corresponding light pulse and a ...More Less
4 US2020027228A1
METHOD OF RECONSTRUCTING THREE DIMENSIONAL IMAGE USING STRUCTURED LIGHT PATTERN SYSTEM
Publication/Patent Number: US2020027228A1 Publication Date: 2020-01-23 Application Number: 16/186,463 Filing Date: 2018-11-09 Inventor: Shi, Lilong   Wang, Yibing Michelle   Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.   IPC: G06T7/521 Abstract: A method of reconstructing a three dimensional image using a structured light pattern system is provided as follows. A class identifier of an observed pixel on a captured image by a camera is extracted. The observed pixel has a coordinate (x, y) on the captured image. A first relative position of the x coordinate of the observed pixel in a tile domain of the captured image is calculated. A second relative position of one of a plurality of dots in a tile domain of a reference image using the extracted class identifier is calculated. A disparity of the observed pixel using the first relative position and the second relative position is calculated. A method of reconstructing a three dimensional image using a structured light pattern system is provided as follows. A class identifier of an observed pixel on a captured image by a camera is extracted. The observed pixel has a coordinate (x, y) on the captured image. A first ...More Less
5 US2020033456A1
TIME-RESOLVING IMAGE SENSOR FOR RANGE MEASUREMENT AND 2D GREYSCALE IMAGING
Publication/Patent Number: US2020033456A1 Publication Date: 2020-01-30 Application Number: 16/140,529 Filing Date: 2018-09-24 Inventor: Wang, Yibing Michelle   Shi, Lilong   Ovsiannikov, Ilia   Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.   IPC: G01S7/486 Abstract: An image sensor includes a time-resolving sensor and a processor. The time-resolving sensor outputs a first signal and a second signal pair in response detecting one or more photons that have been reflected from an object. A first ratio of a magnitude of the first signal to a sum of the magnitude of the first signal and a magnitude of the second signal is proportional to a time of flight of the one or more detected photons. A second ratio of the magnitude of the second signal to the sum of the magnitude of the first signal and the magnitude of the second signal is proportional to the time of flight of the one or more detected photons. The processor determines a surface reflectance of the object where the light pulse has been reflected based on the first signal and the second signal pair and may generate a grayscale image. An image sensor includes a time-resolving sensor and a processor. The time-resolving sensor outputs a first signal and a second signal pair in response detecting one or more photons that have been reflected from an object. A first ratio of a magnitude of the first signal to a ...More Less
6 US2020043196A1
MULTISCALE WEIGHTED MATCHING AND SENSOR FUSION FOR DYNAMIC VISION SENSOR TRACKING
Publication/Patent Number: US2020043196A1 Publication Date: 2020-02-06 Application Number: 16/597,846 Filing Date: 2019-10-09 Inventor: Ji, Zhengping   Shi, Lilong   Wang, Yibing Michelle   Ryu, Hyun Surk   Ovsiannikov, Ilia   Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.   IPC: G06T7/73 Abstract: A Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS) pose-estimation system includes a DVS, a transformation estimator, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a camera-pose estimator based on sensor fusion. The DVS detects DVS events and shapes frames based on a number of accumulated DVS events. The transformation estimator estimates a 3D transformation of the DVS camera based on an estimated depth and matches confidence-level values within a camera-projection model such that at least one of a plurality of DVS events detected during a first frame corresponds to a DVS event detected during a second subsequent frame. The IMU detects inertial movements of the DVS with respect to world coordinates between the first and second frames. The camera-pose estimator combines information from a change in a pose of the camera-projection model between the first frame and the second frame based on the estimated transformation and the detected inertial movements of the DVS. A Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS) pose-estimation system includes a DVS, a transformation estimator, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a camera-pose estimator based on sensor fusion. The DVS detects DVS events and shapes frames based on a number of accumulated DVS events. The ...More Less
7 US2019238823A1
ROBUST STRUCTURED-LIGHT PATTERNS FOR 3D CAMERA SYSTEM
Publication/Patent Number: US2019238823A1 Publication Date: 2019-08-01 Application Number: 15/928,081 Filing Date: 2018-03-21 Inventor: Shi, Lilong   Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.   IPC: G01B11/25 Abstract: A structured-light pattern for a structured-light system includes a base light pattern having a row of a plurality of sub-patterns extending in a first direction. Each sub-pattern is adjacent to at least one other sub-pattern. Each sub-pattern is different from each other sub-pattern. Each sub-pattern includes n dots in a sub-row and n dots in a sub-column in which n is an integer. Each dot is substantially a same size. Each sub-row extends in the first direction, and each sub-column extends in a second direction that is substantially orthogonal to the first direction. The dots that are aligned in a sub-column are offset in the second direction from the dots of the base light pattern that are aligned in an adjacent sub-column. In one embodiment, a size of each sub-pattern in the second direction is larger than a size of each sub-pattern in the first direction by a stretching factor. A structured-light pattern for a structured-light system includes a base light pattern having a row of a plurality of sub-patterns extending in a first direction. Each sub-pattern is adjacent to at least one other sub-pattern. Each sub-pattern is different from each other ...More Less
8 US2019180459A1
ULTRAFAST, ROBUST AND EFFICIENT DEPTH ESTIMATION FOR STRUCTURED-LIGHT BASED 3D CAMERA SYSTEM
Publication/Patent Number: US2019180459A1 Publication Date: 2019-06-13 Application Number: 15/907,242 Filing Date: 2018-02-27 Inventor: Shi, Lilong   Han, Seunghoon   Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.   IPC: G06T7/521 Abstract: A system and a method are disclosed for a structured-light system to estimate depth in an image. An image is received in which the image is of a scene onto which a reference light pattern has been projected. The projection of the reference light pattern includes a predetermined number of particular sub-patterns. A patch of the received image and a sub-pattern of the reference light pattern are matched based on either a hardcode template matching technique or a probability that the patch corresponds to the sub-pattern. If a lookup table is used, the table may be a probability matrix, may contain precomputed correlations scores or may contain precomputed class IDs. An estimate of depth of the patch is determined based on a disparity between the patch and the sub-pattern. A system and a method are disclosed for a structured-light system to estimate depth in an image. An image is received in which the image is of a scene onto which a reference light pattern has been projected. The projection of the reference light pattern includes a predetermined ...More Less
9 US10262399B2
Image denoising with color-edge contrast preserving
Publication/Patent Number: US10262399B2 Publication Date: 2019-04-16 Application Number: 15/458,020 Filing Date: 2017-03-13 Inventor: Shi, Lilong   Ovsiannikov, Ilia   Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.   IPC: G06K9/00 Abstract: A color-edge contrast preserver includes a demosaicing module, a color-correcting module, a converter module and a chromatic-denoising module. The demosaicing module may demosaic a red-white-blue (RWB) pixel image of the image. The color-correcting module may color correct the demosaiced RWB pixel image and may produce a red-green-blue (RGB) pixel image from the color-corrected demosaiced RWB pixel image. The converter module to convert the RGB pixel image to a hue-saturation-value (HSV) pixel image and to generate a similarity kernel ΔY. The chromatic-denoising module may denoise a red pixel image and a blue pixel image of the RWB pixel image using the similarity kernel ΔY. A color-edge contrast preserver includes a demosaicing module, a color-correcting module, a converter module and a chromatic-denoising module. The demosaicing module may demosaic a red-white-blue (RWB) pixel image of the image. The color-correcting module may color correct the ...More Less
10 US2019056500A1
INCREASE DEPTH RESOLUTION AND DEPTH ACCURACY IN TOF SENSORS BY AVOIDING HISTOGRAMMIZATION
Publication/Patent Number: US2019056500A1 Publication Date: 2019-02-21 Application Number: 15/807,334 Filing Date: 2017-11-08 Inventor: Shi, Lilong   Wang, Yibing Michelle   Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.   IPC: G01S17/42 Abstract: A method is disclosed to determine a traveling time for a plurality of received light pulses that reflected and returned from an object. Each returned light pulse is associated with a timestamp indicating a time between a transmission time of a corresponding light pulse and a time of arrival of the returned light pulse. For each timestamp, a number C is determined of time stamps that are subsequent to the timestamp and within a predetermined time window after the timestamp. A maximum number C is determined, and an index i is determined for the maximum number C. A traveling time is determined for the plurality of light pulses as an average of the timestamp having a same index as the maximum number C and timestamps that are within the predetermined time window after the timestamp having the same index as the maximum number C. A method is disclosed to determine a traveling time for a plurality of received light pulses that reflected and returned from an object. Each returned light pulse is associated with a timestamp indicating a time between a transmission time of a corresponding light pulse and a ...More Less
11 US2019178634A1
HIGH CONTRAST STRUCTURED LIGHT PATTERNS FOR QIS SENSORS
Publication/Patent Number: US2019178634A1 Publication Date: 2019-06-13 Application Number: 16/003,014 Filing Date: 2018-06-07 Inventor: Shi, Lilong   Wang, Yibing Michelle   Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.   IPC: G01B11/25 Abstract: A structured-light pattern for a structured-light system includes a base light pattern that includes a row of a plurality of sub-patterns extending in a first direction. Each sub-pattern is adjacent to at least one other sub-pattern, and each sub-pattern is different from each other sub-pattern. Each sub-pattern includes a first number of portions in a sub-row and a second number of portions in a sub-column. Each sub-row extends in the first direction and each sub-column extends in a second direction that is substantially orthogonal to the first direction. Each portion may be a first-type portion or a second-type portion. A size of a first-type portion is larger in the first direction and in the second direction than a size of a second-type portion in the first direction and in the second direction. In one embodiment, a first-type portion is a black portion and the second-type portion is a white portion. A structured-light pattern for a structured-light system includes a base light pattern that includes a row of a plurality of sub-patterns extending in a first direction. Each sub-pattern is adjacent to at least one other sub-pattern, and each sub-pattern is different from each ...More Less
12 US2019281276A1
TIME-RESOLVING SENSOR USING SHARED PPD+SPAD PIXEL AND SPATIAL-TEMPORAL CORRELATION FOR RANGE MEASUREMENT
Publication/Patent Number: US2019281276A1 Publication Date: 2019-09-12 Application Number: 16/422,944 Filing Date: 2019-05-24 Inventor: Wang, Yibing Michelle   Shi, Lilong   Ovsiannikov, Ilia   Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.   IPC: H04N13/254 Abstract: A Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique is combined with analog amplitude modulation within each pixel in a pixel array using multiple Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) in conjunction with a single Pinned Photo Diode (PPD) in each pixel. A SPAD may be shared among multiple neighboring pixels. The TOF information is added to the received light signal by the analog domain-based single-ended to differential converter inside the pixel itself. The spatial-temporal correlation among outputs of multiple, adjacent SPADs in a pixel is used to control the operation of the PPD to facilitate recording of TOF values and range of an object. Erroneous range measurements due to ambient light are prevented by stopping the charge transfer from the PPD—and, hence, recording a TOF value—only when two or more SPADs in the pixel are triggered within a pre-defined time interval. An autonomous navigation system with multi-SPAD pixels provides improved vision for drivers under difficult driving conditions. A Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique is combined with analog amplitude modulation within each pixel in a pixel array using multiple Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) in conjunction with a single Pinned Photo Diode (PPD) in each pixel. A SPAD may be shared among multiple ...More Less
13 US2019020864A1
TIME-RESOLVING SENSOR USING SHARED PPD+SPAD PIXEL AND SPATIAL-TEMPORAL CORRELATION FOR RANGE MEASUREMENT
Publication/Patent Number: US2019020864A1 Publication Date: 2019-01-17 Application Number: 16/134,954 Filing Date: 2018-09-18 Inventor: Wang, Yibing Michelle   Shi, Lilong   Ovsiannikov, Ilia   Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.   IPC: H04N13/254 Abstract: A Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique is combined with analog amplitude modulation within each pixel in a pixel array using multiple Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) in conjunction with a single Pinned Photo Diode (PPD) in each pixel. A SPAD may be shared among multiple neighboring pixels. The TOF information is added to the received light signal by the analog domain-based single-ended to differential converter inside the pixel itself. The spatial-temporal correlation among outputs of multiple, adjacent SPADs in a pixel is used to control the operation of the PPD to facilitate recording of TOF values and range of an object. Erroneous range measurements due to ambient light are prevented by stopping the charge transfer from the PPD—and, hence, recording a TOF value—only when two or more SPADs in the pixel are triggered within a pre-defined time interval. An autonomous navigation system with multi-SPAD pixels provides improved vision for drivers under difficult driving conditions. A Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique is combined with analog amplitude modulation within each pixel in a pixel array using multiple Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) in conjunction with a single Pinned Photo Diode (PPD) in each pixel. A SPAD may be shared among multiple ...More Less
14 US10397553B2
Time-resolving sensor using shared PPD+SPAD pixel and spatial-temporal correlation for range measurement
Publication/Patent Number: US10397553B2 Publication Date: 2019-08-27 Application Number: 16/134,954 Filing Date: 2018-09-18 Inventor: Wang, Yibing Michelle   Shi, Lilong   Ovsiannikov, Ilia   Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.   IPC: H04N13/254 Abstract: A Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique is combined with analog amplitude modulation within each pixel in a pixel array using multiple Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) in conjunction with a single Pinned Photo Diode (PPD) in each pixel. A SPAD may be shared among multiple neighboring pixels. The TOF information is added to the received light signal by the analog domain-based single-ended to differential converter inside the pixel itself. The spatial-temporal correlation among outputs of multiple, adjacent SPADs in a pixel is used to control the operation of the PPD to facilitate recording of TOF values and range of an object. Erroneous range measurements due to ambient light are prevented by stopping the charge transfer from the PPD—and, hence, recording a TOF value—only when two or more SPADs in the pixel are triggered within a pre-defined time interval. An autonomous navigation system with multi-SPAD pixels provides improved vision for drivers under difficult driving conditions. A Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique is combined with analog amplitude modulation within each pixel in a pixel array using multiple Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) in conjunction with a single Pinned Photo Diode (PPD) in each pixel. A SPAD may be shared among multiple ...More Less
15 US10438112B2
Method and apparatus of learning neural network via hierarchical ensemble learning
Publication/Patent Number: US10438112B2 Publication Date: 2019-10-08 Application Number: 14/836,901 Filing Date: 2015-08-26 Inventor: Zhang, Qiang   Ji, Zhengping   Shi, Lilong   Ovsiannikov, Ilia   Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.   IPC: G06N3/04 Abstract: A method for configuring a neural network is provided. The method includes: selecting a neural network including a plurality of layers, each of the layers including a plurality of neurons for processing an input and providing an output; and, incorporating at least one switch configured to randomly select and disable at least a portion of the neurons in each layer. Another method in the computer program product is disclosed. A method for configuring a neural network is provided. The method includes: selecting a neural network including a plurality of layers, each of the layers including a plurality of neurons for processing an input and providing an output; and, incorporating at least one switch ...More Less
16 US10483414B2
Stack-type image sensor including meta-filter
Publication/Patent Number: US10483414B2 Publication Date: 2019-11-19 Application Number: 15/830,166 Filing Date: 2017-12-04 Inventor: Han, Seunghoon   Shi, Lilong   Lee, Kwanghee   Shin, Changgyun   Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.   IPC: H01L31/0232 Abstract: A stack-type image sensor may include a photodiode and a meta-filter. The photodiode may include a first photodiode configured to absorb first light of a first wavelength band and a second photodiode disposed on the first photodiode and configured to absorb second light of a second wavelength band. The meta-filter may include a first meta-filter disposed in a lower portion of the first photodiode and configured to reflect the first light of the first wavelength band to the first photodiode. A stack-type image sensor may include a photodiode and a meta-filter. The photodiode may include a first photodiode configured to absorb first light of a first wavelength band and a second photodiode disposed on the first photodiode and configured to absorb second light of a ...More Less
17 US10417525B2
Object recognition with reduced neural network weight precision
Publication/Patent Number: US10417525B2 Publication Date: 2019-09-17 Application Number: 14/663,233 Filing Date: 2015-03-19 Inventor: Ji, Zhengping   Ovsiannikov, Ilia   Wang, Yibing Michelle   Shi, Lilong   Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.   IPC: G06K9/00 Abstract: A client device configured with a neural network includes a processor, a memory, a user interface, a communications interface, a power supply and an input device, wherein the memory includes a trained neural network received from a server system that has trained and configured the neural network for the client device. A server system and a method of training a neural network are disclosed. A client device configured with a neural network includes a processor, a memory, a user interface, a communications interface, a power supply and an input device, wherein the memory includes a trained neural network received from a server system that has trained and configured ...More Less
18 US2019392253A1
OBJECT RECOGNITION WITH REDUCED NEURAL NETWORK WEIGHT PRECISION
Publication/Patent Number: US2019392253A1 Publication Date: 2019-12-26 Application Number: 16/553,158 Filing Date: 2019-08-27 Inventor: Ji, Zhengping   Ovsiannikov, Ilia   Wang, Yibing Michelle   Shi, Lilong   Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.   IPC: G06K9/62 Abstract: A client device configured with a neural network includes a processor, a memory, a user interface, a communications interface, a power supply and an input device, wherein the memory includes a trained neural network received from a server system that has trained and configured the neural network for the client device. A server system and a method of training a neural network are disclosed. A client device configured with a neural network includes a processor, a memory, a user interface, a communications interface, a power supply and an input device, wherein the memory includes a trained neural network received from a server system that has trained and configured ...More Less
19 US10510160B2
Multiscale weighted matching and sensor fusion for dynamic vision sensor tracking
Publication/Patent Number: US10510160B2 Publication Date: 2019-12-17 Application Number: 15/458,016 Filing Date: 2017-03-13 Inventor: Ji, Zhengping   Shi, Lilong   Wang, Yibing Michelle   Ryu, Hyun Surk   Ovsiannikov, Ilia   Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.   IPC: G06K9/00 Abstract: A Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS) pose-estimation system includes a DVS, a transformation estimator, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a camera-pose estimator based on sensor fusion. The DVS detects DVS events and shapes frames based on a number of accumulated DVS events. The transformation estimator estimates a 3D transformation of the DVS camera based on an estimated depth and matches confidence-level values within a camera-projection model such that at least one of a plurality of DVS events detected during a first frame corresponds to a DVS event detected during a second subsequent frame. The IMU detects inertial movements of the DVS with respect to world coordinates between the first and second frames. The camera-pose estimator combines information from a change in a pose of the camera-projection model between the first frame and the second frame based on the estimated transformation and the detected inertial movements of the DVS. A Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS) pose-estimation system includes a DVS, a transformation estimator, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a camera-pose estimator based on sensor fusion. The DVS detects DVS events and shapes frames based on a number of accumulated DVS events. The ...More Less
20 US2019349569A1
HIGH-SENSITIVITY LOW-POWER CAMERA SYSTEM FOR 3D STRUCTURED LIGHT APPLICATION
Publication/Patent Number: US2019349569A1 Publication Date: 2019-11-14 Application Number: 16/038,146 Filing Date: 2018-07-17 Inventor: Wang, Yibing Michelle   Han, Seunghoon   Shi, Lilong   Na, Byunghoon   Ovsiannikov, Ilia   Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.   IPC: H04N13/254 Abstract: A structured-light imaging system includes a projector, an image sensor and a controller. The projector projects a structured-light pattern onto a selected slice of a scene in which the selected slice of the scene includes a first predetermined size in a first direction and a second predetermined size in a second direction that is substantially orthogonal to the first direction. The image sensor scans the selected slice of the scene and generates an output corresponding to each region of at least one region of the selected slice. The image sensor and the projector are synchronized in an epipolar manner. The controller is coupled to the image sensor and detects whether an object is located within each scanned region and controls the projector to project the structured-light pattern a first plurality of times towards regions of the selected slice of the scene in which no object has been detected. A structured-light imaging system includes a projector, an image sensor and a controller. The projector projects a structured-light pattern onto a selected slice of a scene in which the selected slice of the scene includes a first predetermined size in a first direction and a ...More Less