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1
US2019260055A1
Publication/Patent Number: US2019260055A1
Publication date: 2019-08-22
Application number: 16/333,801
Filing date: 2017-09-19
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G.  
Abstract: A electrochemical direct heat to electricity converter having a low temperature membrane electrode assembly array and a high temperature membrane electrode assembly array is provided. Additional cells are provided in the low temperature membrane electrode assembly array, which causes an additional amount of the working fluid, namely hydrogen, to be pumped to the high pressure side of the converter. The additional pumped hydrogen compensates for the molecular hydrogen diffusion that occurs through the membranes of the membrane electrode assembly arrays. The MEA cells may be actuated independently by a controller to compensate for hydrogen diffusion. A electrochemical direct heat to electricity converter having a low temperature membrane electrode assembly array and a high temperature membrane electrode assembly array is provided. Additional cells are provided in the low temperature membrane electrode assembly array, which ...more ...less
2
EP3516723A1
Publication/Patent Number: EP3516723A1
Publication date: 2019-07-31
Application number: 17777733.1
Filing date: 2017-09-19
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G.  
3
EP3180813B1
Publication/Patent Number: EP3180813B1
Publication date: 2019-06-12
Application number: 15831880.8
Filing date: 2015-08-10
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G.  
4
US2019173142A1
Publication/Patent Number: US2019173142A1
Publication date: 2019-06-06
Application number: 16/324,773
Filing date: 2017-08-10
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G.  
Abstract: A direct heat to electricity engine includes solid state electrodes of an electrochemically active material that has an electrochemical reaction potential that is temperature dependent. The electrodes are configured in combination with electrolyte separators to form membrane electrode assemblies. The membrane electrode assemblies are grouped into pairs, whereby each membrane electrode assembly of a given pair is ionically and electronically interconnected with the other. One membrane electrode assembly of a given pair is coupled to a heat source with the other to a heat sink. One membrane electrode assembly of the pair is electrically discharged while the other is electrically charged, whereby the net and relative charge between the two remains constant because of the electronic and ionic interconnection and the difference in temperature of the membrane electrode assemblies, and thereby voltage, results in net power generation. A direct heat to electricity engine includes solid state electrodes of an electrochemically active material that has an electrochemical reaction potential that is temperature dependent. The electrodes are configured in combination with electrolyte separators to form membrane ...more ...less
5
EP3460891A1
Publication/Patent Number: EP3460891A1
Publication date: 2019-03-27
Application number: 18200616.3
Filing date: 2015-08-10
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G.  
Abstract: A thermo-electro-chemical converter direct heat to electricity engine has a monolithic co-sintered ceramic structure or a monolithic fused polymer structure that contains a working fluid within a continuous closed flow loop. The co-sintered ceramic or fused polymer structure includes a conduit system containing a heat exchanger, a first high density electrochemical cell stack, and a second high density electrochemical cell stack. A thermo-electro-chemical converter direct heat to electricity engine has a monolithic co-sintered ceramic structure or a monolithic fused polymer structure that contains a working fluid within a continuous closed flow loop. The co-sintered ceramic or fused polymer structure ...more ...less
6
EP3168914B1
Publication/Patent Number: EP3168914B1
Publication date: 2019-02-27
Application number: 16202541.5
Filing date: 2013-10-03
Abstract: A method of fabricating a solid-state battery is disclosed. The method comprises providing a substrate (102) and casting a cathode slurry (108) comprising a cathode active material and an electrolyte binder onto the substrate to form a cathode casting. The electrode binder comprises a first ion conductive filler powder and a first inorganic solid electrolyte. A method of fabricating a solid-state battery is disclosed. The method comprises providing a substrate (102) and casting a cathode slurry (108) comprising a cathode active material and an electrolyte binder onto the substrate to form a cathode casting. The electrode binder ...more ...less
7
US10218044B2
Publication/Patent Number: US10218044B2
Publication date: 2019-02-26
Application number: 15/408,991
Filing date: 2017-01-18
Abstract: A rechargeable lithium air battery is provided. The battery contains a ceramic separator forming an anode chamber, a molten lithium anode contained in the anode chamber, an air cathode, and a non-aqueous electrolyte. The cathode has a temperature gradient comprising a low temperature region and a high temperature region, and the temperature gradient provides a flow system for reaction product produced by the battery. A rechargeable lithium air battery is provided. The battery contains a ceramic separator forming an anode chamber, a molten lithium anode contained in the anode chamber, an air cathode, and a non-aqueous electrolyte. The cathode has a temperature gradient comprising a low ...more ...less
8
US10333123B2
Publication/Patent Number: US10333123B2
Publication date: 2019-06-25
Application number: 14/382,194
Filing date: 2013-03-01
Abstract: A high capacity solid state composite cathode contains an active cathode material dispersed in an amorphous inorganic ionically conductive metal oxide, such as lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide and/or lithium carbon lanthanum zirconium oxide. A solid state composite separator contains an electronically insulating inorganic powder dispersed in an amorphous, inorganic, ionically conductive metal oxide. Methods for preparing the composite cathode and composite separator are provided. A high capacity solid state composite cathode contains an active cathode material dispersed in an amorphous inorganic ionically conductive metal oxide, such as lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide and/or lithium carbon lanthanum zirconium oxide. A solid state composite separator ...more ...less
9
US2018166724A1
Publication/Patent Number: US2018166724A1
Publication date: 2018-06-14
Application number: 15/892,794
Filing date: 2018-02-09
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G.  
Abstract: A direct heat to electricity engine includes solid state electrodes of an electrochemically active material that has an electrochemical reaction potential that is temperature dependent. The electrodes are configured in combination with electrolyte separators to form membrane electrode assemblies. The membrane electrode assemblies are grouped into pairs, whereby each membrane electrode assembly of a given pair is ionically and electronically interconnected with the other. One membrane electrode assembly of a given pair is coupled to a heat source with the other to a heat sink. One membrane electrode assembly of the pair is electrically discharged while the other is electrically charged, whereby the net and relative charge between the two remains constant because of the electronic and ionic interconnection and the difference in temperature of the membrane electrode assemblies, and thereby voltage, results in net power generation. A direct heat to electricity engine includes solid state electrodes of an electrochemically active material that has an electrochemical reaction potential that is temperature dependent. The electrodes are configured in combination with electrolyte separators to form membrane ...more ...less
10
US2018083318A1
Publication/Patent Number: US2018083318A1
Publication date: 2018-03-22
Application number: 15/558,763
Filing date: 2016-03-18
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G.  
Abstract: A solid state battery cell has a frame formed by a non-electrically conductive material. The frame has a frame thickness (Tf). A cell core surrounded by and entirely within the frame has a cell-core thickness (Tc). The cell core includes at least one anode, at least one cathode and at least one electrolyte between the at least one anode and the at least one cathode. At least one cell-core swell-accommodating recess is surrounded by and entirely within the frame. The at least one cell-core swell-accommodating recess defines an internal cell volume into which the cell core is expandable and from which the cell core is contractible. The cell-core thickness (Tc) is less than or equal to the frame thickness (Tf) during cell-charge and/or cell-discharge cycling. A solid state battery cell has a frame formed by a non-electrically conductive material. The frame has a frame thickness (Tf). A cell core surrounded by and entirely within the frame has a cell-core thickness (Tc). The cell core includes at least one anode, at least one cathode ...more ...less
11
US2018108960A1
Publication/Patent Number: US2018108960A1
Publication date: 2018-04-19
Application number: 15/556,692
Filing date: 2016-03-09
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G.  
Abstract: An electrochemical direct heat to electricity converter includes a primary thermal energy source; a working fluid; an electrochemical cell comprising at least one membrane electrode assembly including a first porous electrode, a second porous electrode and at least one membrane, wherein the at least one membrane is sandwiched between the first and second porous electrodes and is a conductor of ions of the working fluid; an energy storage reservoir; and an external load. The electrochemical cell operates on heat to produce electricity. When thermal energy available from the primary thermal energy source is greater than necessary to meet demands of the external load, excess energy is stored in the energy storage reservoir, and when the thermal energy available from the primary thermal energy source is insufficient to meet the demands of the external load, at least a portion of the excess energy stored in the energy storage reservoir is used to supply power to the external load. An electrochemical direct heat to electricity converter includes a primary thermal energy source; a working fluid; an electrochemical cell comprising at least one membrane electrode assembly including a first porous electrode, a second porous electrode and at least one membrane ...more ...less
12
EP3385644A1
Publication/Patent Number: EP3385644A1
Publication date: 2018-10-10
Application number: 18174027.5
Filing date: 2016-03-09
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G.  
Abstract: An electrochemical direct heat to electricity converter includes a working fluid; a first membrane electrode assembly including a high pressure porous electrode, a low pressure porous electrode and at least one membrane, wherein the at least one membrane is sandwiched between the first and second porous electrodes and is a conductor of ions of the working fluid; an energy storage reservoir; an external load and a controller. The electrochemical converter produces electrical energy when the working fluid expands through the membrane electrode assembly from high pressure to low pressure when power is extracted from the first membrane electrode assembly. The electrochemical converter stores electrical energy when the compressed working fluid is compressed through the first membrane electrode assembly from low pressure to high pressure when power is supplied to the first membrane electrode assembly by the controller. An electrochemical direct heat to electricity converter includes a working fluid; a first membrane electrode assembly including a high pressure porous electrode, a low pressure porous electrode and at least one membrane, wherein the at least one membrane is sandwiched between ...more ...less
13
US2018013178A1
Publication/Patent Number: US2018013178A1
Publication date: 2018-01-11
Application number: 15/643,709
Filing date: 2017-07-07
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G  
Abstract: An ambient heat engine that is thermally coupled to its environment is provided. The ambient heat engine includes two complementary electrochemical cells. One cell has a positive voltage temperature coefficient and the other cell has a negative voltage temperature coefficient. The ambient heat engine further includes a controller and an electrical energy storage device. When the ambient temperature increases or decreases, the temperature variation creates a voltage differential between the two cells, and the controller discharges the higher voltage cell and uses a portion of the discharged energy to charge the lower voltage cell. The difference in energy is extracted by the controller and supplied to the electrical energy storage device. The controller includes circuitry for coupling energy from the energy storage device to the cells in order to compensate for self-discharge of the cells which may occur due to electronic leakage and diffusion phenomenon over extended periods of time. An ambient heat engine that is thermally coupled to its environment is provided. The ambient heat engine includes two complementary electrochemical cells. One cell has a positive voltage temperature coefficient and the other cell has a negative voltage temperature coefficient ...more ...less
14
US201883318A1
Publication/Patent Number: US201883318A1
Publication date: 2018-03-22
Application number: 20/161,555
Filing date: 2016-03-18
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G  
Abstract: A solid state battery cell has a frame formed by a non-electrically conductive material. The frame has a frame thickness (Tf). A cell core surrounded by and entirely within the frame has a cell-core thickness (Tc). The cell core includes at least one anode, at least one cathode and at least one electrolyte between the at least one anode and the at least one cathode. At least one cell-core swell-accommodating recess is surrounded by and entirely within the frame. The at least one cell-core swell-accommodating recess defines an internal cell volume into which the cell core is expandable and from which the cell core is contractible. The cell-core thickness (Tc) is less than or equal to the frame thickness (Tf) during cell-charge and/or cell-discharge cycling. A solid state battery cell has a frame formed by a non-electrically conductive material. The frame has a frame thickness (Tf). A cell core surrounded by and entirely within the frame has a cell-core thickness (Tc). The cell core includes at least one anode, at least one cathode ...more ...less
15
CN107580733A
Publication/Patent Number: CN107580733A
Publication date: 2018-01-12
Application number: 201680018346
Filing date: 2016-03-18
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G  
Abstract: A solid state battery cell has a frame formed by a non-electrically conductive material. The frame has a frame thickness (Tf). A cell core surrounded by and entirely within the frame has a cell-core thickness (Tc). The cell core includes at least one anode, at least one cathode and at least one electrolyte between the at least one anode and the at least one cathode. At least one cell-core swell-accommodating recess is surrounded by and entirely within the frame. The at least one cell-core swell-accommodating recess defines an internal cell volume into which the cell core is expandable and fromwhich the cell core is contractible. The cell-core thickness (Tc) is less than or equal to the frame thickness (Tf) during cell-charge and/or cell-discharge cycling. A solid state battery cell has a frame formed by a non-electrically conductive material. The frame has a frame thickness (Tf). A cell core surrounded by and entirely within the frame has a cell-core thickness (Tc). The cell core includes at least one anode, at least one cathode ...more ...less
16
EP3269001A1
Publication/Patent Number: EP3269001A1
Publication date: 2018-01-17
Application number: 16713186.1
Filing date: 2016-03-09
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G  
17
US10056783B2
Publication/Patent Number: US10056783B2
Publication date: 2018-08-21
Application number: 14/676,171
Filing date: 2015-04-01
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G.  
Abstract: An energy harvesting circuit for use with a logic circuit includes an induction coil positioned near conductive elements of the logic circuit and configured to extract energy from the magnetic fields produced by transient currents associated with state changes within the logic circuit. An energy harvesting circuit for use with a logic circuit includes an induction coil positioned near conductive elements of the logic circuit and configured to extract energy from the magnetic fields produced by transient currents associated with state changes within the logic ...more ...less
18
US10122055B2
Publication/Patent Number: US10122055B2
Publication date: 2018-11-06
Application number: 15/175,708
Filing date: 2016-06-07
Inventor: Johnson, Lonnie G.  
Abstract: An ambient-heat engine has a substantially thermally-conductive housing whose interior is divided into a high-pressure chamber and a low-pressure chamber by a substantially gas-impermeable barrier. An ionically-conductive, electrical-energy-generating mechanism forms at least a portion of the barrier. First hydrogen-storage medium is disposed within the high-pressure chamber and second hydrogen-storage medium is disposed within the low-pressure chamber. An electrical-energy storage device connected to the ionically-conductive, electrical-energy-generating mechanism is operable between a charge condition and a discharge condition. In a charge condition, hydrogen atoms within the high-pressure chamber are converted to hydrogen ions and conducted through the electrical-energy-generating mechanism to the low-pressure chamber causing electrical-energy to be generated to the electrical-energy storage device. When the electrical-energy storage device is in a discharge condition an electric current is passed through the electrical-energy-generating mechanism causing hydrogen in the low-pressure chamber to convert to hydrogen ions and conduct through the electrical-energy-generating mechanism to the high-pressure chamber. An ambient-heat engine has a substantially thermally-conductive housing whose interior is divided into a high-pressure chamber and a low-pressure chamber by a substantially gas-impermeable barrier. An ionically-conductive, electrical-energy-generating mechanism forms at least a ...more ...less