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1 US10564556B2
Electrophotographic photoreceptor, process cartridge, and image forming apparatus
Publication/Patent Number: US10564556B2 Publication Date: 2020-02-18 Application Number: 15/946,312 Filing Date: 2018-04-05 Inventor: Kunisawa, Eri   Assignee: FUJI XEROX CO., LTD.   IPC: G03G5/06 Abstract: An electrophotographic photoreceptor includes a conductive substrate, a charge-generating layer disposed on the conductive substrate, and a charge-transporting layer as an outermost layer disposed on the charge-generating layer and containing a binder resin and a charge-transporting material, wherein the average particle size of the crystal of the charge-transporting material is approximately from 0.1 μm to 5.0 μm. An electrophotographic photoreceptor includes a conductive substrate, a charge-generating layer disposed on the conductive substrate, and a charge-transporting layer as an outermost layer disposed on the charge-generating layer and containing a binder resin and a ...More ...Less
2 US10571817B1
Method for curing an overcoat in a photoconductor used in an electrophotographic imaging device
Publication/Patent Number: US10571817B1 Publication Date: 2020-02-25 Application Number: 16/225,337 Filing Date: 2018-12-19 Inventor: Luo, Weimei   Bellino, Mark Thomas   Hrobsky, Rudolph Wayne   Assignee: LEXMARK INTERNATIONAL, INC.   IPC: G03G7/00 Abstract: A method of curing a protective overcoat layer on the outermost portion of an organic photoconductor drum using dual curing process is provided. The first curing step applies either ionizing irradiation, such as with an electron beam or by gamma rays or applies non-ionizing irradiation such as ultraviolet light to the overcoated photoconductor drum. A mask or shield is sized to be placed over the print area of the initially cured photoconductor drum, thereby exposing the outermost edges of the photoconductor drum. The outer edges of the masked photoconductor drum is then exposed to a second curing step using non-ionizing irradiation such as ultraviolet light. A method of curing a protective overcoat layer on the outermost portion of an organic photoconductor drum using dual curing process is provided. The first curing step applies either ionizing irradiation, such as with an electron beam or by gamma rays or applies non-ionizing ...More ...Less
3 US10649352B2
Electrophotographic member, method for producing electrophotographic member, and electrophotographic image forming apparatus
Publication/Patent Number: US10649352B2 Publication Date: 2020-05-12 Application Number: 15/967,832 Filing Date: 2018-05-01 Inventor: Tsuji, Yasutomo   Miyauchi, Yohei   Tanaka, Toshio   Assignee: CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA   IPC: G03G5/05 Abstract: To provide an electrophotographic member high in volume resistivity uniformity even in application of a high voltage such as 1,000 V. The electrophotographic member includes a base material and an elastic layer on the base material, the elastic layer containing a silicone rubber and an ionic liquid, and the ionic liquid including a cation modified by a dimethylsiloxane chain, and an anion. To provide an electrophotographic member high in volume resistivity uniformity even in application of a high voltage such as 1,000 V. The electrophotographic member includes a base material and an elastic layer on the base material, the elastic layer containing a silicone rubber ...More ...Less
4 US2020012205A1
ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC PHOTORECEPTOR, PROCESS CARTRIDGE, AND IMAGE FORMING APPARATUS
Publication/Patent Number: US2020012205A1 Publication Date: 2020-01-09 Application Number: 16/260,141 Filing Date: 2019-01-29 Inventor: Kigoshi, Yoichi   Iwanaga, Takeshi   Torigoe, Nobuyuki   Hirakata, Masaki   Katsuhara, Hideya   Kusano, Keisuke   Assignee: FUJI XEROX CO.,LTD.   IPC: G03G5/043 Abstract: An electrophotographic photoreceptor includes a conductive substrate; an undercoat layer on the conductive substrate; a charge generating layer on the undercoat layer; a charge transporting layer on the charge generating layer; and an inorganic protective layer on the charge transporting layer. The undercoat layer, the charge transporting layer, and the inorganic protective layer each have a film elastic modulus of 5 GPa or more. An electrophotographic photoreceptor includes a conductive substrate; an undercoat layer on the conductive substrate; a charge generating layer on the undercoat layer; a charge transporting layer on the charge generating layer; and an inorganic protective layer on the charge ...More ...Less
5 US2020033743A1
ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC PHOTOCONDUCTOR, IMAGE FORMING APPARATUS, AND IMAGE FORMING METHOD
Publication/Patent Number: US2020033743A1 Publication Date: 2020-01-30 Application Number: 16/445,973 Filing Date: 2019-06-19 Inventor: Kami, Hidetoshi   Asano, Tomoharu   Assignee: KAMI, Hidetoshi   Asano, Tomoharu   IPC: G03G5/047 Abstract: An electrophotographic photoconductor is provided. The electrophotographic photoconductor includes a conductive substrate, a photosensitive layer, and a surface layer containing fluororesin particles, non-fluororesin particles, and a cured resin. The fluororesin particles have an average particle diameter of from 0.01 to 0.3 μm in a cross-sectional image of the surface layer as observed by a scanning electron microscope with a magnification of 5,000 times, and when the cross-sectional image is segmented into uniform regions each being 1 μm×4 μm, a standard deviation of areas each of which is occupied by the fluororesin particles and the non-fluororesin particles in each of the regions is 0.2 μm2 or less. An electrophotographic photoconductor is provided. The electrophotographic photoconductor includes a conductive substrate, a photosensitive layer, and a surface layer containing fluororesin particles, non-fluororesin particles, and a cured resin. The fluororesin particles have ...More ...Less
6 US2020117105A1
IMAGE FORMING APPARATUS AND PROCESS CARTRIDGE
Publication/Patent Number: US2020117105A1 Publication Date: 2020-04-16 Application Number: 16/379,898 Filing Date: 2019-04-10 Inventor: Watanabe, Takuya   Kawai, Takeshi   Assignee: FUJI XEROX CO., LTD.   IPC: G03G5/05 Abstract: An image forming apparatus includes an electrophotographic photoreceptor including a conductive substrate, an undercoat layer containing a binder resin and metal oxide particles, disposed on the conductive substrate, and a photosensitive layer disposed on the undercoat layer; a charging unit that charges a surface of the electrophotographic photoreceptor; an electrostatic latent image-forming unit forming an electrostatic latent image on the charged surface of the electrophotographic photoreceptor; a developing unit developing the electrostatic latent image on the surface of the electrophotographic photoreceptor by using a developer containing a toner to form a toner image; and a transfer unit that transfers the toner image onto a surface of a transfer-receiving member, but not including a charge erasing member that erases charges on the surface of the electrophotographic photoreceptor. The photosensitive layer formed is 3.8% or more and 17% or less to a carbon element abundance determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An image forming apparatus includes an electrophotographic photoreceptor including a conductive substrate, an undercoat layer containing a binder resin and metal oxide particles, disposed on the conductive substrate, and a photosensitive layer disposed on the undercoat layer; a ...More ...Less
7 CN103941554B
电子照相感光体、处理盒和成像装置
Title (English): Photosensors, processing boxes and imaging devices
Publication/Patent Number: CN103941554B Publication Date: 2020-01-21 Application Number: 201310553075.8 Filing Date: 2013-11-08 Inventor: 额田克己   山田涉   广濑英一   岩馆侑子   梶原贤志   Assignee: 富士施乐株式会社   IPC: G03G5/04 Abstract: 本发明提供了电子照相感光体、处理盒及成像装置。本发明的电子照相感光体包括:导电基体和设置在导电基体上的感光层,并且电子照相感光体的最外表面层由这样的组合物的聚合产物或交联产物构成,该组合物包含选白下式(I)和(II)表示的反应性化合物中的至少一种以及非反应性电荷传输材料;基于最外表面层的重量,组合物中非反应性电荷传输材料的含量为5重量%至40重量%;基于最外表面层的重量,反应前最外表面层中反应性化合物的含量为3重量%以下。即使在加厚最外表面层的情况下,该电子照相感光体仍具有优异的电学性能和机械强度。
8 CN110832403A
电子照相用感光体、其制造方法以及电子照相装置
Title (English): Photosensitive bodies for electronic photography, their manufacturing methods and electronic photographic devices
Publication/Patent Number: CN110832403A Publication Date: 2020-02-21 Application Number: 201880044416.X Filing Date: 2018-12-28 Inventor: 北川清三   斋藤和也   根桥和希   江森弘   竹内胜   Assignee: 富士电机株式会社   IPC: G03G5/14 Abstract: 本发明提供一种实现了在消除低温低湿环境下或高温高湿环境下的重影的同时,消除因高温高湿环境下的泄漏造成的黑点发生以及因转印后电位下降而发生的整面印刷浓度不均匀的电子照相用感光体、其制造方法以及电子照相装置。电子照相用感光体包括铝制的导电性基体(1)、设置在导电性基体上的阳极氧化被膜(2)、设置在阳极氧化被膜上的中间层(3)、在中间层上从导电性基体侧依次层叠的电荷传输层(4‑1)和电荷产生层(4‑2),电荷传输层包含电荷传输材料和树脂粘合剂,电荷产生层包含电荷产生材料、空穴传输材料、电子传输材料和树脂粘合剂,阳极氧化被膜的膜厚在2μm以上且10μm以下,中间层包含氯乙烯‑乙酸乙烯酯共聚树脂,中间层的膜厚在0.02μm以上且0.3μm以下。 本发明提供一种实现了在消除低温低湿环境下或高温高湿环境下的重影的同时,消除因高温高湿环境下的泄漏造成的黑点发生以及因转印后电位下降而发生的整面印刷浓度不均匀的电子照相用感光体、其制造方法以及电子照相装置。电子照相用感光体包括铝制的导电性基体(1)、设置在导电性基体上的阳极氧化被膜(2)、设置在阳极氧化被膜上的中间层(3)、在中间层上从导电性基体侧依次层叠的电荷传输层(4‑1)和电荷产生层(4‑2),电荷传输层包含电荷传输材料和树脂粘合剂,电荷产生层包含电荷产生材料、空穴传输材料、电子传输材料和树脂粘合剂,阳极氧化被膜的膜厚在2μm以上且10μm以下,中间 ...More ...Less
9 CN110780550A
图像形成装置和图像形成方法
Title (English): Image Formation Device and Image Formation Method
Publication/Patent Number: CN110780550A Publication Date: 2020-02-11 Application Number: 201910607550.2 Filing Date: 2019-07-05 Inventor: 田中作白   石野正人   藤田俊贵   牧江郁雄   Assignee: 京瓷办公信息系统株式会社   IPC: G03G5/05 Abstract: 图像形成装置具备像承载体、带电部、曝光部、显影部和转印部。带电部使像承载体的表面带电为正极性。曝光部对带电了的像承载体的表面进行曝光,在像承载体的表面形成静电潜像。显影部将调色剂供给到静电潜像,将静电潜像显影为调色剂像。转印部将调色剂像从像承载体上转印到被转印体上。像承载体是具备导电性基体和感光层的感光体。感光层含有电荷产生剂、空穴输送剂、电子输送剂和粘结树脂。感光层中,电荷产生剂的含有比例是0.50质量%以上1.50质量%以下,静电收益是32.0%以上,空穴移动性μ和电子移动性μ是1.00×10cm/V/秒以上,比率(μ/μ)是1/50.0以上1/1.0以下。 图像形成装置具备像承载体、带电部、曝光部、显影部和转印部。带电部使像承载体的表面带电为正极性。曝光部对带电了的像承载体的表面进行曝光,在像承载体的表面形成静电潜像。显影部将调色剂供给到静电潜像,将静电潜像显影为调色剂像。转印部将调色剂像从像承载体上转印到被转印体上。像承载体是具备导电性基体和感光层的感光体。感光层含有电荷产生剂、空穴输送剂、电子输送剂和粘结树脂。感光层中,电荷产生剂的含有比例是0.50质量%以上1.50质量%以下,静电收益是32.0%以上,空穴移动性μ和电子移动性μ是1.00×10cm/V/秒以上,比率(μ/μ)是1/50.0以上1/1. ...More ...Less
10 US2020133147A1
ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC PHOTOSENSITIVE MEMBER, PROCESS CARTRIDGE, AND ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS
Publication/Patent Number: US2020133147A1 Publication Date: 2020-04-30 Application Number: 16/597,152 Filing Date: 2019-10-09 Inventor: Takizawa, Kumiko   Shimada, Tsuyoshi   Ueno, Takanori   Kuroiwa, Ikuyo   Mitsuda, Haruhiko   Tanabe, Kan   Ikezue, Tatsuya   Assignee: CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA   IPC: G03G5/14 Abstract: Provided is an electrophotographic photosensitive member that can achieve both of abrasion resistance and the suppression of a ghost. The electrophotographic photosensitive member includes: a support; an undercoat layer; a charge-generating layer; and a charge-transporting layer, the undercoat layer, the charge-generating layer, and the charge-transporting layer being arranged in the stated order on the support, wherein the charge-transporting layer includes a charge-transporting substance, and a polymer containing a structure represented by the following general formula (1) and a structure represented by the following general formula (2), wherein the charge-generating layer includes a phthalocyanine crystal and a binder resin, and wherein the undercoat layer includes strontium titanate particles and a binder resin. Provided is an electrophotographic photosensitive member that can achieve both of abrasion resistance and the suppression of a ghost. The electrophotographic photosensitive member includes: a support; an undercoat layer; a charge-generating layer; and a charge-transporting ...More ...Less
11 US2020159135A1
ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC PHOTOSENSITIVE MEMBER, PROCESS CARTRIDGE, AND ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS
Publication/Patent Number: US2020159135A1 Publication Date: 2020-05-21 Application Number: 16/681,982 Filing Date: 2019-11-13 Inventor: Ichihashi, Naoaki   Kawai, Yasuhiro   Owaki, Hironori   Assignee: CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA   IPC: G03G5/047 Abstract: Provided is a cylindrical electrophotographic photosensitive member, including a concave/convex portion forming region in which at least one of concave portions and convex portions are formed on a surface of the electrophotographic photosensitive member from a central portion to both end portions in an axial direction of the electrophotographic photosensitive member, wherein a maximum value Lmax and a minimum value Lmin of a distance L from the central portion to one end portion of the concave/convex portion forming region in the axial direction of the surface of the electrophotographic photosensitive member satisfy a specific relation. Provided is a cylindrical electrophotographic photosensitive member, including a concave/convex portion forming region in which at least one of concave portions and convex portions are formed on a surface of the electrophotographic photosensitive member from a central portion to ...More ...Less
12 US10545453B2
Process cartridge and electrophotographic apparatus
Publication/Patent Number: US10545453B2 Publication Date: 2020-01-28 Application Number: 16/196,106 Filing Date: 2018-11-20 Inventor: Iwasaki, Shuhei   Noguchi, Kazunori   Ogaki, Harunobu   Yamaai, Tatsuya   Miura, Daisuke   Sakakibara, Akira   Furukawa, Takumi   Tomomizu, Yuya   Assignee: CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA   IPC: G03G5/00 Abstract: Provided are a process cartridge and an electrophotographic apparatus each suppressed in fluctuation in charging potential at the time of its long-term use. The process cartridge includes: an electrophotographic photosensitive member having a surface layer containing a resin and a charge-transporting substance; and a charging member configured to charge the electrophotographic photosensitive member, wherein an average of Martens hardnesses of the surface layer of the electrophotographic photosensitive member measured at a pushing force of 7 mN is 245 N/mm2 or more, and wherein in a core defined by three-dimensional surface texture standards (ISO 25178-2:2012) of the surface of the charging member, an average of Martens hardnesses measured at a pushing force of 0.04 mN is 2 N/mm2 or more and 20 N/mm2 or less, and an average of adhesivenesses measured with a scanning probe microscope in a field of view of 2-micrometer square is 70 mV or less. Provided are a process cartridge and an electrophotographic apparatus each suppressed in fluctuation in charging potential at the time of its long-term use. The process cartridge includes: an electrophotographic photosensitive member having a surface layer containing a resin and ...More ...Less
13 US10545417B1
Electrophotographic photoconductor, image forming apparatus, and image forming method
Publication/Patent Number: US10545417B1 Publication Date: 2020-01-28 Application Number: 16/445,973 Filing Date: 2019-06-19 Inventor: Kami, Hidetoshi   Asano, Tomoharu   Assignee: Ricoh Company, Ltd.   IPC: G03G5/00 Abstract: An electrophotographic photoconductor is provided. The electrophotographic photoconductor includes a conductive substrate, a photosensitive layer, and a surface layer containing fluororesin particles, non-fluororesin particles, and a cured resin. The fluororesin particles have an average particle diameter of from 0.01 to 0.3 μm in a cross-sectional image of the surface layer as observed by a scanning electron microscope with a magnification of 5,000 times, and when the cross-sectional image is segmented into uniform regions each being 1 μm×4 μm, a standard deviation of areas each of which is occupied by the fluororesin particles and the non-fluororesin particles in each of the regions is 0.2 μm2 or less. An electrophotographic photoconductor is provided. The electrophotographic photoconductor includes a conductive substrate, a photosensitive layer, and a surface layer containing fluororesin particles, non-fluororesin particles, and a cured resin. The fluororesin particles have ...More ...Less
14 US10635009B2
Electrophotographic photosensitive member, process cartridge, and image forming apparatus
Publication/Patent Number: US10635009B2 Publication Date: 2020-04-28 Application Number: 16/003,329 Filing Date: 2018-06-08 Inventor: Shimizu, Tomofumi   Assignee: KYOCERA Document Solutions Inc.   IPC: G03G5/05 Abstract: An electrophotographic photosensitive member includes a conductive substrate and a photosensitive layer having a single-layer structure. The photosensitive layer contains a charge generating material, an electron transport material, a polycarbonate resin, and a hole transport material. The electron transport material includes a compound having a halogen atom and represented by general formula (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5). The polycarbonate resin has a terminal group having a fluoro group and represented by general formula (10). The hole transport material includes a compound represented by general formula (20), (21), (22), (23), (24), (25), (26), or (27). A charge of calcium carbonate as measured by charging the calcium carbonate through friction with the photosensitive layer is at least +6.5 μC/g. The photosensitive layer has a Vickers hardness of at least 17.0 HV at 45° C. An electrophotographic photosensitive member includes a conductive substrate and a photosensitive layer having a single-layer structure. The photosensitive layer contains a charge generating material, an electron transport material, a polycarbonate resin, and a hole transport ...More ...Less
15 CN110914235A
三联苯化合物、电子照相感光体和三联苯化合物制造方法
Title (English): Manufacturing methods of triphenyl compounds, electrophotosensitizers and triphenyl compounds
Publication/Patent Number: CN110914235A Publication Date: 2020-03-24 Application Number: 201880047680.9 Filing Date: 2018-07-17 Inventor: 东润   小岛健辅   清水智文   冈田英树   Assignee: 京瓷办公信息系统株式会社   IPC: C07C211/54 Abstract: 化合物由通式(1)表示。通式(1)中,R和R各自独立,表示氢原子、甲基或者乙基,并且R所表示的基的碳原子数与R所表示的基的碳原子数之和是2。R和R各自独立,表示氢原子、甲基或者乙基,并且R所表示的基的碳原子数与R所表示的基的碳原子数之和是2。还有,电子照相感光体的感光层至少含有电荷产生剂、空穴输送剂和粘结树脂。空穴输送剂含有通式(1)表示的化合物。
16 CN105843004B
电子照相感光体及其制造方法、以及图像形成装置
Title (English): Photographic photosensitizers and their manufacturing methods and image forming devices
Publication/Patent Number: CN105843004B Publication Date: 2020-03-13 Application Number: 201610053162.0 Filing Date: 2016-01-26 Inventor: 岩下裕子   杉本和隆   松本贵文   Assignee: 京瓷办公信息系统株式会社   IPC: G03G5/05 Abstract: 本发明提供电子照相感光体及其制造方法、以及图像形成装置。电子照相感光体具备感光层。感光层含有电荷产生剂和空穴输送剂。作为电荷产生剂而含有的氧钛酞菁在CuKα特征X射线衍射光谱中,在布拉格角2θ±0.2°=27.2°具有主峰,在差示扫描量热分析光谱中满足下列(B)或(C)。(B)除了伴随着吸附水分气化的峰值外,在50℃以上400℃以下的范围内没有峰值。(C)除了伴随着吸附水分气化的峰值外,在50℃以上270℃以下的范围内没有峰值,在270℃以上400℃以下的范围内具有峰值。空穴输送剂是通式(1)所示化合物。通式(1)中,Ar~Ar和n1分别与说明书中的Ar~Ar和n1含义相同。【化1】 本发明提供电子照相感光体及其制造方法、以及图像形成装置。电子照相感光体具备感光层。感光层含有电荷产生剂和空穴输送剂。作为电荷产生剂而含有的氧钛酞菁在CuKα特征X射线衍射光谱中,在布拉格角2θ±0.2°=27.2°具有主峰,在差示扫描量热分析光谱中满足下列(B)或(C)。(B)除了伴随着吸附水分气化的峰值外,在50℃以上400℃以下的范围内没有峰值。(C)除了伴随着吸附水分气化的峰值外,在50℃以上270℃以下的范围内没有峰值,在270℃以上400℃以下的范围内具有峰值。空穴输送剂是通式(1)所示化合物。通式(1)中,Ar~Ar和n1分别与说明书中的Ar ...More ...Less
17 CN104969130B
电子照相用感光体、其制造方法以及电子照相装置
Title (English): Photosensitive bodies for electronic photography, their manufacturing methods and electronic photographic devices
Publication/Patent Number: CN104969130B Publication Date: 2020-03-17 Application Number: 201480007681.2 Filing Date: 2014-07-11 Inventor: 北川清三   铃木信二郎   江森弘   Assignee: 富士电机株式会社   IPC: G03G5/147 Abstract: 本发明的目的在于提供一种电子照相用感光体、以及使用该电子照相用感光体的电子照相装置,所述电子照相用感光体适用于高解析度且高速的带正电方式的电子照相装置,动作稳定性优异且不会因图像存储器、接触构件或油脂或者皮脂所引起的污染而产生裂纹从而产生图像缺陷,能稳定地获得高图像品质,具有高灵敏度,能高速响应,且具有高耐久性。在导电性支承体上包括至少含有电荷产生材料、空穴传输材料、电子传输材料及粘接树脂的感光层的电子照相用感光体中,最外层含有电荷产生材料、空穴传输材料、电子传输材料、粘接树脂、以及高度支化聚合物,该高度支化聚合物通过在存在聚合引发剂的状态下使分子内具有两个以上的自由基聚合性双键的的单体、与分子内具有长链烷基或脂环基及至少一个自由基聚合性双键的单体发生聚合而形成。 本发明的目的在于提供一种电子照相用感光体、以及使用该电子照相用感光体的电子照相装置,所述电子照相用感光体适用于高解析度且高速的带正电方式的电子照相装置,动作稳定性优异且不会因图像存储器、接触构件或油脂或者皮脂所引起的污染而产生裂纹从而产生图像缺陷,能稳定地获得高图像品质,具有高灵敏度,能高速响应,且具有高耐久性。在导电性支承体上包括至少含有电荷产生材料、空穴传输材料、电子传输材料及粘接树脂的感光层的电子照相用感光体中,最外层含有电荷产生材料、空穴传输材料、电子传输材料、粘接树脂、以及高度支化聚合物,该高度支化聚合物通过在存在聚合引发剂的状态下使分子内具有 ...More ...Less
18 US2020041949A1
IMAGE FORMING APPARATUS AND IMAGE FORMING METHOD
Publication/Patent Number: US2020041949A1 Publication Date: 2020-02-06 Application Number: 16/505,944 Filing Date: 2019-07-09 Inventor: Ishino, Masahito   Tanaka, Nariaki   Fujita, Toshiki   Shibuya, Teppei   Kobayashi, Kiyotaka   Assignee: KYOCERA Document Solutions Inc.   IPC: G03G21/00 Abstract: An image forming apparatus includes an image bearing member, a charger, and a cleaning member. The charger charges a circumferential surface of the image bearing member to a positive polarity. The cleaning member is pressed against the circumferential surface of the image bearing member and collects a toner remaining on the circumferential surface of the image bearing member. A linear pressure of the cleaning member on the circumferential surface of the image bearing member is at least 10 N/m and no greater than 40 N/m. The image bearing member includes a conductive substrate and a single-layer photosensitive layer. The single-layer photosensitive layer contains a charge generating material, a hole transport material, an electron transport material, and a binder resin. The image bearing member satisfies formula (1) 0.60 ≦ V ( Q / S ) × ( d / ɛ r · ɛ 0 ) . ( 1 ) An image forming apparatus includes an image bearing member, a charger, and a cleaning member. The charger charges a circumferential surface of the image bearing member to a positive polarity. The cleaning member is pressed against the circumferential surface of the image ...More ...Less
19 US10635008B2
Electrophotographic photosensitive member, process cartridge, and image forming apparatus
Publication/Patent Number: US10635008B2 Publication Date: 2020-04-28 Application Number: 16/258,790 Filing Date: 2019-01-28 Inventor: Iwashita, Yuko   Hamasaki, Kazunari   Sugimoto, Kazutaka