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1
US20050170237A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050170237A1
Publication date: 2005-08-04
Application number: 11/047,567
Filing date: 2005-02-02
Abstract: Provided is a fuel cell characterized in that a base material comprises a carbonaceous porous body having electrical conductivity in a part or the whole part and that a unit cell in which the respective layers of electrode/electrolyte/electrode are formed on the surface of the base material assumes a structure in which the base material is impregnated with liquid fuel (for example: methanol solution) and the surface of the electrode formed on the outside surface of the base material is exposed to air. The carbonaceous porous body having an electrical conductivity is allowed to have jointly functions as an electrode•collector, an impregnating medium for liquid fuel and oxidizing agent gas and a cell supporter, whereby a separator can be unneeded, and therefore a fuel cell which can reduce a size of a fuel cell system and which can exhibit a high output is provided by making use of the above unneeded space as a field for convecting and diffusing oxidizing agent gas or the liquid fuel. Provided is a fuel cell characterized in that a base material comprises a carbonaceous porous body having electrical conductivity in a part or the whole part and that a unit cell in which the respective layers of electrode/electrolyte/electrode are formed on the surface of the ...more ...less
2
US20050130025A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050130025A1
Publication date: 2005-06-16
Application number: 10/500,916
Filing date: 2003-01-09
Abstract: A water repellent carbonaceous material obtained by contacting a carbonaceous material with a water repellent material in a melted state.
3
US20050142432A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050142432A1
Publication date: 2005-06-30
Application number: 10/747,373
Filing date: 2003-12-29
Inventor: Reiser, Carl  
Assignee: Reiser, Carl
Abstract: A fuel cell (40) includes first and second catalysts (12′), (14′) secured to opposed surfaces of an electrolyte (16′); a first flow field (26′) secured in fluid communication with the first catalyst (12′) defining a plurality of flow channels (30A′, 30B′, 30C′, 30D′) between a plurality of ribs (32A′, 32B′, 32C′, 32D′, 32E′) of the first flow field (26′); and a backing layer (42) secured between the first flow field (26′) and the first catalyst (12′). The backing layer (42) includes a carbon black, a hydrophobic polymer, and randomly-dispersed carbon fibers (44). The carbon fibers (44) are at least twice as long as a width (46) of the flow channels (30A′, 30B′, 30C′, 30D′) defined in the adjacent first flow field (26′). The backing layer (42) replaces a known substrate (22) and diffusion layer (18). A fuel cell (40) includes first and second catalysts (12′), (14′) secured to opposed surfaces of an electrolyte (16′); a first flow field (26′) secured in fluid communication with the first catalyst (12′) defining a plurality of flow channels ...more ...less
4
US20050142433A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050142433A1
Publication date: 2005-06-30
Application number: 11/019,031
Filing date: 2004-12-22
Abstract: In order to prevent the crossover of an organic fuel such as methanol in a fuel cell and to exhibit excellent electricity generation characteristics without impairing the utilization efficiency of the fuel, at least either of (1) a discontinuous catalyst layer being formed on a surface of an anode catalyst layer and having a higher density (existence probability) of platinum type catalyst than the anode catalyst layer and (2) an electrolyte polymer layer is formed at the interface between the anode catalyst layer and a polymer electrolyte membrane. In order to prevent the crossover of an organic fuel such as methanol in a fuel cell and to exhibit excellent electricity generation characteristics without impairing the utilization efficiency of the fuel, at least either of (1) a discontinuous catalyst layer being formed on a ...more ...less
5
US20050208343A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050208343A1
Publication date: 2005-09-22
Application number: 10/514,180
Filing date: 2003-05-14
Abstract: Disclosed is a mediator-less microbial fuel cell comprising a cathode compartment, an anode compartment, with or without glass wool and glass bead for separating the two compartments, an element for feeding air to the cathode compartment, and an element for feeding wastewater to the anode compartment. The cell further comprises an element for controlling the distance between the cathode compartment and the anode compartment. Graphite felt or graphite felt coated with a metal such as platinum is used as an electrode of the cathode compartment, and a buffer solution is used in the anode compartment. A mediator-less microbial fuel cell according to the present invention can be operated without using an expensive cation-exchange membrane, of which efficiency is by no means inferior to prior wastewater treatment methods. Disclosed is a mediator-less microbial fuel cell comprising a cathode compartment, an anode compartment, with or without glass wool and glass bead for separating the two compartments, an element for feeding air to the cathode compartment, and an element for feeding wastewater to ...more ...less
6
US20050245390A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050245390A1
Publication date: 2005-11-03
Application number: 11/041,972
Filing date: 2005-01-26
Abstract: A catalyst carrier, being characterized in that a catalyst metal for promoting an oxidation-reduction reaction is carried on a vapor-grown carbon fiber having an average outer diameter of from 2 nm to 500 nm, which has been subjected to a crushing treatment so as to have a BET specific surface area of from 4 m2/g to 100 m2/g and an aspect ratio of from 1 to 200, and exhibiting high activity per unit amount of a catalyst metal, a low reaction resistance and an improved output density, and is useful for a fuel battery; a production method thereof and a fuel battery using the catalyst carrier. A catalyst carrier, being characterized in that a catalyst metal for promoting an oxidation-reduction reaction is carried on a vapor-grown carbon fiber having an average outer diameter of from 2 nm to 500 nm, which has been subjected to a crushing treatment so as to have a BET ...more ...less
7
US20050271930A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050271930A1
Publication date: 2005-12-08
Application number: 11/084,200
Filing date: 2005-03-21
Inventor: Egawa, Takashi  
Abstract: A polymer electrolyte fuel cell comprises a catalyst layer; a cation exchange resin provided in the catalyst layer; a proton conductive path provided in the cation exchange resin; a carbon material provided in the catalyst layer; and a catalyst metal provided in the catalyst layer. 50 mass % or more of the catalyst metal is loaded on the contact surface between the proton conductive path and the carbon material, and the porosity of the catalyst layer is 65% to 87.5%. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell comprises a catalyst layer; a cation exchange resin provided in the catalyst layer; a proton conductive path provided in the cation exchange resin; a carbon material provided in the catalyst layer; and a catalyst metal provided in the catalyst ...more ...less
8
US20050181268A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050181268A1
Publication date: 2005-08-18
Application number: 10/512,374
Filing date: 2003-03-31
Abstract: A fuel cell electrode comprising a structure wherein fine particles of a noble metal or a noble metal element-containing alloy are supported on inner walls of fine pores of a porous graphite film having fine continuous pores, a fuel cell electrode having an ion-conducting electrolyte material coated on the inner walls of continuous pores of the electrode, a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) comprising the fuel cell electrode assembled onto at least one side of the ion-conducting electrolyte material, and a fuel cell comprising the membrane-electrode assembly as a constituent element thereof. It is thereby possible to obtain, by a simple fabrication process, a fuel cell electrode, membrane-electrode assembly and fuel cell having a support structure which allows effective use of noble metal catalysts, which reliably maintains paths for fuel gas, electrons, protons and water, and which consistently exhibits stable performance over extended periods. A fuel cell electrode comprising a structure wherein fine particles of a noble metal or a noble metal element-containing alloy are supported on inner walls of fine pores of a porous graphite film having fine continuous pores, a fuel cell electrode having an ion-conducting ...more ...less
9
US20050282061A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050282061A1
Publication date: 2005-12-22
Application number: 10/873,760
Filing date: 2004-06-22
Inventor: Campbell, Stephen  
Abstract: Corrosion of the carbon catalyst support may occur at both the anode and cathode catalyst layers within an electrochemical fuel cell. Such corrosion may lead to reduced performance and/or decreased lifetimes of the fuel cell. Nevertheless, carbon supports have many desirable properties as catalyst supports including high surface area, high electrical conductivity, good porosity and density. To reduce or eliminate corrosion of the carbon catalyst support, the carbon support may have a metal surface treatment and, in particular, a metal carbide surface treatment. Suitable metal carbides include titanium, tungsten and molybdenum. In this manner, the metal carbide surface treatment protects the underlying carbon support from corrosion while maintaining the desirable characteristics of the carbon support. Corrosion of the carbon catalyst support may occur at both the anode and cathode catalyst layers within an electrochemical fuel cell. Such corrosion may lead to reduced performance and/or decreased lifetimes of the fuel cell. Nevertheless, carbon supports have many desirable ...more ...less
10
US20050260473A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050260473A1
Publication date: 2005-11-24
Application number: 10/851,789
Filing date: 2004-05-21
Inventor: Wang, Conghua  
Abstract: Provided, among other things, is ion-conductive membrane assembly comprising: a porous core; and sandwiching the porous core therebetween, two ion-conductive membranes; wherein the porous core is adapted to retain a ion-conductive liquid.
11
US20050142429A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050142429A1
Publication date: 2005-06-30
Application number: 11/062,597
Filing date: 2005-02-22
Abstract: A catalytic material and electrode of the present invention are characterized in that the catalyst carrier constituting the above-mentioned catalytic material and electrode includes at least one member selected from the group consisting of nitrogen atoms, oxygen atoms, phosphor atoms, and sulfur atoms. Since the cohesion or growth of catalyst grains can hereby be suppressed, it is possible to provide a highly active catalyst, a high-performance electrode, and a high-output-density fuel cell which uses the same. A catalytic material and electrode of the present invention are characterized in that the catalyst carrier constituting the above-mentioned catalytic material and electrode includes at least one member selected from the group consisting of nitrogen atoms, oxygen atoms, phosphor ...more ...less
12
US20050112451A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050112451A1
Publication date: 2005-05-26
Application number: 10/976,783
Filing date: 2004-11-01
Abstract: A catalyst support for a fuel cell, having good hydrophilic property and electroconductivity, an anode including the same, and a fuel cell including the anode are provided. The catalyst support is composed of a metal oxide-carbon composite.
14
US20050112450A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050112450A1
Publication date: 2005-05-26
Application number: 10/898,669
Filing date: 2004-07-23
Abstract: This invention provides novel fuel cell catalysts comprising new series of catalytically active thin-film metal alloys with low platinum concentration supported on nanostructured materials (nanoparticles). In certain embodiments, an integrated gas-diffusion/electrode/catalyst layer can be prepared by processing catalyst thin films and nanoparticales into gas-diffusion media such as Toray or SGL carbon fiber papers. The catalysts can be placed in contact with an electrolyte membrane for PEM fuel cell applications. This invention provides novel fuel cell catalysts comprising new series of catalytically active thin-film metal alloys with low platinum concentration supported on nanostructured materials (nanoparticles). In certain embodiments, an integrated gas-diffusion/electrode/catalyst ...more ...less
15
US20050037255A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050037255A1
Publication date: 2005-02-17
Application number: 10/875,506
Filing date: 2004-06-25
Abstract: The invention provides a high activity electrode catalyst for fuel cells whose catalytic activity due to an expensive noble metal, such as platinum, has been improved to a higher level through the use of an inexpensive material to enable a reduction in noble metal catalyst usage, a fuel cell in which the above high activity electrode catalyst is used, a membrane-electrode assembly in which the above high activity electrode catalyst is used, and a gas diffusion electrode in which the above high activity electrode catalyst is used. Use is made of an electrode catalyst for fuel cells comprising a carbon material that contain catalytically induced turbostratic structures in parts of its structure and noble metal particles supported thereon, or an electrode catalyst for fuel cells comprising the catalyst mentioned above and a catalyst comprising carbon black and noble metal particles supported thereon as mixed together or an electrode catalyst comprising the catalyst mentioned above and carbon black as mixed together. The invention provides a high activity electrode catalyst for fuel cells whose catalytic activity due to an expensive noble metal, such as platinum, has been improved to a higher level through the use of an inexpensive material to enable a reduction in noble metal catalyst ...more ...less
16
US20050084742A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050084742A1
Publication date: 2005-04-21
Application number: 10/924,317
Filing date: 2004-08-23
Abstract: Favorable performance of diffusion media in fuel cells has found to be correlated to a parameter (the C/F ratio) that relates to a spatial and thickness distribution of the hydrophobic fluoropolymer on the carbon fiber substrate structure of the medium. Suitable diffusion media may be chosen from among commercially coated diffusion media by measuring the C/F ratio by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy, and choosing the diffusion media if the value of the C/F ratio is within the preferred range. Alternatively, the diffusion media may be manufactured with an improved process that consistently yields values of C/F ratio in the desired range. Favorable performance of diffusion media in fuel cells has found to be correlated to a parameter (the C/F ratio) that relates to a spatial and thickness distribution of the hydrophobic fluoropolymer on the carbon fiber substrate structure of the medium. Suitable diffusion media ...more ...less
17
US20050079403A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050079403A1
Publication date: 2005-04-14
Application number: 10/931,955
Filing date: 2004-09-01
Abstract: Fuel cell gas diffusion layers are disclosed.
18
US20050064276A1
Publication/Patent Number: US20050064276A1
Publication date: 2005-03-24
Application number: 10/936,731
Filing date: 2004-09-09